B.Sc. (Hons) Botany

Semester V

  • JBBH-501

    Cell Biology and Biochemistry:


    a) Structure, properties and biological significance of water, pH and its significance, buffers (inorganic and organic) and their importance. Comparative account of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.

    b) Structure and function of cell organelles: Cell membrane, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Nucleus, Ribosomes, Golgi complex; endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes,microbodies-peroxisomes.


    Cell Division: Mitosis and meiosis; various stages of cell division; role of centromere, kinetochore and spindle apparatus; mechanism of cell cycle control, and significance.


    Biomolecules: Classification, Structure and function of biomolecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids and Nucleic Acid).


    Enzymology: Nomenclature and Classification, Physiochemical nature of Enzymes, the mechanism of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factor affecting enzyme activity, coenzyme and cofactors.


    • 1. Nelson & Cox, Lehninger Principle of Biochemistry, Mcmillion.
    • 2. Lodish, Harvey, Molecular cell Biology, Mcmillion.
    • 3. Devlin, T.M., Text book of Biochemistry.
  • JBBH-502

    Plant Physiology and Ecology:


    a) Plant water relations: Structure and properties of water, elementary idea of chemical, water and osmotic potential diffusion, osmosis and imbibition, absorption of water by cell and root, water transport through xylem, transpiration and its significance, mechanism of stomatal movement, factors affecting transpiration.

    b) Mineral nutrition: Criteria of essentiality of elements, macro and micronutrients, role of essential elements, mineral deficiency symptoms and plant disorders, elementary idea of nutrient uptake and transport mechanism, role of cell membrane, ion pumps and carriers


    Photosynthesis: Historical background and significance, structure of photosynthetic apparatus, photosynthetic pigments and reaction Centre complexes, photo-chemical reactions, electron transport pathways in chloroplast membranes, photophosphorylation, calvin cycle, C4 cycle, Crassulacean acid metabolism, elementary idea of photorespiration.
    Respiration: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration, glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport in mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.


    Growth and development: Definition and phases of growth, seed germination, photoperiodism, vernalisation, general aspects of phytohormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and their roles; plant movement, and Nitrogen Fixation.


    Ecosystem development and energy flow:

    • a) Ecosystem: Concept and structure, energy flow, ecological efficiencies, cycling of C, N and P. Biotic and abiotic component, their inter relationships, Trophic organization, autotrophy, Hetetrophy, parasitism, detritus and decomposition.
    • b) Succession and Energy flow: Types and mechanism ofsuccession, climax, ecological pyramids, food chains, food webs, and productivity concept.
    • c) Community: Characteristics and their measurement, niche concept, species diversity.


    • 1. Taiz & Ziger, Plant Physiology & Development,Sinaver Associate.
    • 2. Sharma, P.D., Plant Ecology & Environmental Biology, Rastogi Publication.
    • 3. Srivastava, H.S., Plant Physiology, Rastogi Publication.
  • JBBH-503

    Systematic of Angiosperm and Environmental Biology:


    • a) Introduction: Aims and components of systematic, introduction, identification, nomenclature and classification.
    • b) Systematics in practice: Importance of herbarium specimens and their preparation; role of herbaria and botanical gardens.


    • a) Botanical nomenclature: Principles and rules ranks and names, type method, principle of priority and its limitations.
    • b) Systems of classification: Bentham and Hooker’s system, Engler and Prantl’s system.
    • c) Modern taxonomy: Supporting evidence inputs for taxonomy, taxonomy in relation to embryology and ecology.


    Study of the following families with special reference to local flora and plants of economic value.

    • a) Dicot: Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae, Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae.
    • b) Monocot: Liliaceae, Arecaceae, Poaceae.


    • a) Introduction: Interrelationship between the living world and environment, the components and dynamism, homeostasis.
    • b) Earth as a system and the environment: The biosphere, the atmosphere and the lithosphere, components within biosphere (Biomes); Soil-general account and adaptations; the atmosphere-general account and adaptations. The living world-biotic components of environment, types of biotic interactions.
    • c) Organismal ecology/biotic components: Individuals species, populations (population, regulation; r & k their characteristics).


    • a) Concept of ecosystem and their types, structure and organization of ecosystem, functions of ecosystem.
    • b) Transfer of energy and minerals via grazing and detrituschains and role of micro-organisms, productivity, cycles(hydrologic, gaseous), and role of human in maintaining biogeochemical cycles.
    • c) Human ecology and ecological management: The renewable and non-renewable resources and their management. Conservation of biodiversity, endangered species.


    • 1. Verma, V.K., Introduction of taxonomy of Angiosperm, PHI Publication
    • 2. Sharma, P.D., Environmental Botany& Plant Pathology, Rastogi Publication.
    • 3. Singh, Pandey & Jain, Textbook of Angiosperm, Rastogi Publication.
  • JBBH-551

    Cell Biology and Biochemistry Practical:

    Based on theory paper of Cell Biology and Biochemistry.

  • JBBH-552

    Plant Physiology and Ecology Practical:

    Based on theory paper of Plant Physiology and Ecology.

  • JBBH-553

    Systematic of Angiosperm and Environmental Biology Practical:

    Based on theory paper of Systematic of Angiosperm and Environmental Biology.

  • Total Credits