B.Sc. (Hons) Chemistry PCM Syllabus
Semester II

COURSE CODECOURSE NAMECREDITS

JBCH201
Organic Chemistry:
UNITI
Alkanes, Alkenes, Dienes and Alkynes, cycloalkanes:
a. Alkanes: Methods of formation (with special reference to Wurtz reaction, Kolbe reaction, CoreyHouse reaction and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids), chemical reactions (nitration and halogenation. Mechanism of free radical halogenation of alkanes orientation, reactivity and
b. Alkyenes: Structure and bonding in alkynes. Mehtods of formation, chemical reactions, and acidity of alkynes. Mechanism of electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reaction, hydroboration oxidation, selectivity.
c. Alkenes: Methods of formation, mechanisms of dehydration of alcohols and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides, regioselectivity in alcohol dehydration. The Saytzeff rule, Hofmann elimination, physical properties and relative stabilities of alkenes. Chemical reactionsmechanisms involved in hydrogenation, electrophilic and free radical additions, Markownikoff's rule. Hydroborationoxidation, oxymercurationdemercuration, epoxidation, ozonolysis, hydration, hydroxylation and oxidation with KmnO4. Polymerization of alkenes.
d. Dienes: Nomenclature and classification isolated, conjugated and cumulated dienes. Structure of allenes and butadiene, method of formation. 2 and 1, 4additions, DielsAlder reaction.
e. Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical reactions, Baeyer's strain theory and its limitations. Stran in small rings (cyclopropane and cyclobutane), theory of strainless ring. The case of cyclopropane ring: banana bonds.
UNITII
Alchols, Ethers and epoxide:
a. Alcohols: preparation, properties and relative reactivity of 10, 20, 30 alcohols, BouvaeltBlanc Reduction; Preparation and properties of glycols: Oxidation by periodic acid and leadtetraacetate, Pinacol Pinacolone rearrangement; Phenols: Preparation and properties; Acidity and factors effecting it, Ring substitution reactions, Reimer – Tiemann and Kolbe's – Schmidt Reactions,
b. Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation and reactions with acids. Reactions of epoxides with alcohols, ammonia derivatives and LiAlH4.
UNITIII
Carbonyl Compounds:
Structure, reactivity and preparation; Nucleophilic additions, Nucleophilic additionelimination reactions with ammonia derivatives with mechanism; Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, ClaisanSchmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction, Beckmann and BenzilBenzilic acid rearrangements, haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, αsubstitution reactions, oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, WolffKishner, LiAlH4, NaBH4, MPV, PDC and PGC); Addition reactions of unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Michael addition. Active methylene compounds: Ketoenol tautomerism. Preparation and synthetic applications of diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate:
UNITIV
Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives:
Preparation, physical properties and reactions of monocarboxylic acids: Typical reactions of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy acids and unsaturated acids: succinic/phthalic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, maleic and fumaric acids; Preparation and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides; Comparative study of nucleophilic sustitution at acyl group  Mechanism of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of esters, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann and Reformatsky reactions, Hofmannbromamide degradation and Curtius rearrangement.
Books:
 1. Organic Chemistry by Morrison & Boyd, PrinticeHall.
 2. Organic Chemistry by L.G. Wade Jr. PrenticeHall.
 3. Organic Chemistry by Fessenden & Fessenden, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
 4. Organic Reaction Mechanism by V.K. Ahluwalia and R.K. Parashar, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
04 
JBPH201
Optics:
UNITI
Geometrical Optics: Fermat's Principle: Optical Path. Fermat's Principle of Least Time or Extremum Path. Examples of Fermat's Principle: (1) Reflection and (2) Refraction. Lenses: Transverse Magnification of a Spherically Refracting Surface. Lagrange and Helmholtz Laws of Magnification. Cardinal Points of a Coaxial Optical System. Graphical Construction of Image using Cardinal Points. Deviation produced by a Thin Lens. Equivalent Focal Length of Two Thin Lenses separated by a distance. Cardinal Points of a Coaxial System of Two Thin Lenses. Thick Lenses. Focal Length of a Thick Lens. Variation of Focal Length of a Convex Lens with Thickness. Cardinal Points of a Thick Lens.
UNITII
Wave Optics: Nature of Light: Theories of Light. Electromagnetic Nature of Light Definition of a Wave Front. Propagation of a Wave Front. Huygens Principle of Secondary Wavelets. Interference: Division of Amplitude and Division of Wavefront. Young's Double Slit Experiment. Lloyd's Mirror and Fresnel's Biprism. Phase Change on Reflection: Stoke's treatment.. Interference in Thin Films: Parallel and Wedgeshaped Films. Fringes of Equal Inclination (Haidinger Fringes) and Fringes of Equal Thickness (Fizeau Fringes). Newton's Rings: Measurement of Wavelength and Refractive Index.
UNITIII
Michelson's Interferometer: (1) Idea of form of fringes (No Theory required), (2) Determination of Wavelength, (3) Wavelength Difference, (4) Refractive Index, (5) Standardization of Meter and (6) Visibility of Fringes. Coherence: Temporal and Spatial Coherence. Theory of Partial Coherence. Coherence Time and Coherence Length. Purity of a Spectrum Line.
UNITIV
Diffraction: Fresnel diffraction: Fresnel's Assumptions. Fresnel's HalfPeriod Zones for Plane Wave. Explanation of Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Theory of a Zone Plate: Multiple Foci of a Zone Plate. Comparison of a Zone plate with a Convex lens. Diffraction due to (1) a Straight Edge and (2) a Rectangular Aperture (Slit), (3) a Small Circular Aperture and (4) an Oopaque Circular Disc. Fresnel's Integrals, Cornu's Spiral: Fresnel Diffraction Pattern due to (1) a Straight Edge, (2) a Slit, and (3) a Wire (Qualitatively using Cornu's Spiral).
UNITV
Fraunhoferdiffraction: Diffraction due to (1) a Single Slit, (2) a Double Slit and (3) a Plane Transmission Grating. Rayleigh's criterion of resolution. Resolving Power and Dispersive Power of a Plane Diffraction Grating. Holography: Principle of Holography. Recording and Reconstruction Method. Theory of Holography as Interference between two Plane Waves.
Books:
 1. Fundamentals of Optics By Francis Arthur Jenkins and Harvey Elliott White (McGraw Hill, 1976)
 2. Optics by Ajoy Ghatak (Tata McGraw Hill, 2008)
 3. Optics By Eugene Hecht and A R Ganesan (Pearson Education, 2002)
 4. Light and Optics: Principles and Practices by Abdul AlAzzawi (CRC Press, 2007)
 5. Contemporary Optics by A. K. Ghatak& K. Thyagarajan.(Plenum Press,1978).
 6. Introduction to Optics by Khanna and Gulati
04 
JBMH201
Differential EquationI:
UNITI
Differential equations and mathematical models,order and degree of differential equation,solution of first order differential equations,reducible to variable separable form,linear differential equation,reducible to linear differential equation,exact differential equation and integrating factor of first order differential equation.
UNITII
Differential equation of second order with constant coefficients, Different form of P.I.,homogeneous and nonhomogeneous linear differential equation of order 'n' with constant coefficients, CauchyEuler's equation of order 'n',method of variation of parameters, application of second order differential equation to mechanical vibrations.
UNITIII
Solution of differential equation by changing it into dependent and independent variable. Solution of Legendredifferential equation and its properties, Solution of Bessel's differential equation and its properties, Wronskian,its properties and applications.
UNITIV
Periodic functions, Trigonometricseries, Laplacetransform, Existencetheorem, Laplace transform of derivatives and integrals, InverseLaplacetransform, Unit step, Dirac delta function, Laplace transform ofPeriodic functions, Convolutiontheorem, Application to solve simple linear and simultaneous differential equations.
Books:
 1. H. Edwards and D. E. Penny, Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modelling, Pearson education, India 2005.
 2. Dennis G. Zill, A first course in differential equations,
 3. S. L. Ross: Differential equations, John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
 4. ZafarAhsan: Text Book of Differential Equations and their Applications, Prentice Hall of India.
 5. Khalil Ahmad: Text Book of Differential Equations, World Education Publishers.
 6. Prof. SanjeevRajan, Differential Equations and Transformation ,S.J.Publication , Meerut.
04 
JBCH251
Organic ChemistryI Lab:
 1. Checking the calibration of the thermometer.

 a) Water
 b) Alcohol
 c) Alcoholwater
 3. Determination of the melting point of unknown organic compounds.
 4. Effect of impurities on the melting point  mixed melting point of two unknown organic compounds.
 5. Determination of boiling point of liquid compounds.
 6. Crystallization of the given organic sample.
02 
JBPH251
Optics Lab:
List of Experiments:
Note: Select any ten experiments from the following list
 1. To determine the wavelength of Sodium light by Newton's rings.
 2. To determine the wavelength of Sodium light by Fresnel's biprism.
 3. To determine the specific rotation of the cane sugar solution with the help of Polarimeter.
 4. To study the forward characteristics of a light emitting diode.
 5. To determine the resolving power and dispersive power by a prism.
 6. To determine the resolving power of grating.
 7. To study the elliptically polarised light.
 8. To determine slit width using HeNe laser.
 9. To determine the Flashing & Quenching of Neon bulb.
 10. To determine the Resolving power of a telescope
 11. To determine the wavelength of the sodium lamp by Michelson interferometer.
 12. To determine the wave form and frequency of a given signal using C.R.O.
02 
Total Credits16