B.Sc. (Hons) Chemistry ZBC Syllabus

Semester V

  • JBCH-501

    Inorganic Chemistry-II:


    Chemical Bonding: Covalent Bon Valence bond theory and its limitations, directional characteristics of covalent bond, various types of hybridization and shapes of simple inorganic molecules and ions. Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory to NH3, H3O+, SF4, ClF3, ICl2- and H2O. MO theory, homonuclear and heteronuclear (CO and NO) diatomic molecules, multicenter bonding in electron deficient molecules, bond strength and bond energy, percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference. Ionic Solids - Ionic structures, radius ratio effect and coordination number, limitation of radius ratio rule, lattice defects, semiconductors, lattice energy and Born-Haber cycle, solvation energy and solubility of ionic solids, polarizing power and polarisability of ions, Fajan's rule. Metallic bond-free electron, valence bond and band theories. Metallic Bond: Qualitative idea of valence bond and band theories. Semiconductors and insulators, defects in solids.


    Chemistry of s and p block elements: Inert pair effect, Relative stability of different oxidation states, diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour of first member of each group. Allotropy and catenation. Complex formation tendency of s and p block elements. Hydrides and their classification ionic, covalent and interstitial. Basic beryllium acetate and nitrate. Study of the following compounds with emphasis on structure, bonding, preparation, properties and uses. silanes, Oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen, Phosphorus and chlorine. Peroxo acids of sulphur, interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens and basic properties of halogens. Comparative study (Including diagnol relationship) of s and p block of elements. Structure and bonding in diborane, oxides and oxyacids of Phosphorous. Structures and Bonding in Interhalogen Compounds.


    Noble gases: Occurrence & uses, rationalization of inertness of noble gases, Clathrates; preparation and properties of XeF2 and XeF4, XeF6; Nature of bonding in noble gas compounds (Valence bond treatment and MO treatment for XeF2). Molecular shapes of noble gas compounds (VSEPR theory).


    Transition elements: General group trends with special reference to electronic configuration, colour, variable valency, magnetic and catalytic properties, ability to form complexes. Stability of various oxidation states and e.m.f. (Latimer & Bsworth diagrams). Difference between the first, second and third transition series. Chemistry of Ti, V, Cr Mn, Fe and Co in various oxidation states (excluding their metallurgy)


    • 1. Huheey, J.E. Inorganic Chemistry, Prentice Hall 1993
    • 2. Douglas, B.E. and Mc Daniel, D.H., Concepts & Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford
    • 3. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS (1991)
    • 4. Shriver & Atkins, Inorganic Chemistry, Third Edition, Oxford Press 1994.
    • 5. H.W. Porterfield, Inorganic Chemistry, Second Edition, Academic Press, 2005.
  • JBCH-502

    Organic Chemistry-II:


    Stereochemistry: Fischer Projection, Newmann and Sawhorse Projection formulae and their interconversions; Geometrical isomerism: cis–trans and, syn-anti isomerism E/Z notations with C.I.P rules. Optical Isomerism: Optical Activity, Specific Rotation, Chirality/Asymmetry, Enantiomers, Molecules with two or more chiral-centres, Distereoisomers, meso structures, Racemic mixtureand resolution. Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations.


    Arenes and Aromticity, Alkyl and Aryl halides:

    Arenes and Aromaticity: Structure of benzene-molecular formula and Kekule structure. Stability and carbon-carbon bond lengths of benzene, resonance structure, MO picture. Aromaticity- the Huckel rule, aromatic ions. Aromatic electrophilic substitution -general pattrn of the mechanism, role of σ – and π- complexes. Mechanism of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation and Friedel-Craft reactions. Energy profile diagrams. Activating and deactivating substituents, orientation and ortho/para ratio, electrophilic aromatics substitution of toluene & nitrobenzene. Side chain reactions of benzene derivatives. Alkyl and aryl halides: SN1 and SN2mechanism in alkyl halides with energy profile diagrams. Methods of formation of aryl halides. The addition-elimination and elimination-addition mechanism of nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions.


    Compounds of Nitrogen

    a) Preparation of nitroalkanes and nitroarenes. Chemical reactions of nitroalkanes. Mechanism of nucleopilic substitution in nitroarenes and their reductions in acidic neutral and alkaline media. Picric acid.

    b) Amines: Classification and preparation of amines (alkyl & aryl). Separation of a mixture of Primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Structural features affecting basicity of amines. Amine Reactions of amines, electrophilic aromatic substitution in aryl amines, reactions of amines with nitrous acid. Synthetic transformation of aryl diazonium salts, azo coupling.


    Dyes and Polymers

    Classification, Colour and constitution; Mordant and Vat Dyes; Chemistry of dyeing; Synthesis and applications of: Azo dyes – Methyl Orange and Congo Red (mechanism of Diazo Coupling); Triphenyl Methane Dyes - Malachite Green, Rosaniline and Crystal Violet; Phthalein Dyes – Phenolphthalein and Fluorescein; Natural dyes –structure elucidation and synthesis of Alizarin and Indigotin; Edible Dyes with examples. Introduction and classification including di-block, tri-block and amphiphilic polymers; Number average molecular weight, Weight average molecular weight, Degree of polymerization, Polydispersity Index. Polymerisation reactions - Addition and condensation - Mechanism of cationic, anionic and free radical addition polymerization; Metallocene-based Ziegler-Natta polymerisation of alkenes; Preparation and applications of plastics – thermosetting (phenol-formaldehyde, Polyurethanes) and thermosoftening (PVC, polythene); Fabrics – natural and synthetic (acrylic, polyamido, polyester); Rubbers – natural and synthetic: Buna-S, Chloroprene and Neoprene; Vulcanization; Polymer additives; Introduction to liquid crystal polymers; Biodegradable and conducting polymers with examples.


    • 1. Morrison, R. T. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
    • 2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education)
  • JBCH-503

    Physical Chemistry-II:


    Electrochemistry-II: Electrical transport-conduction in metals and in electrolyte solutions; specific conductance and equivalent conductance, measurement of equivalent conductance, variation of equivalent and specific conductance with dilution. Migration of ions and Kohlrausch law, Arrhenius theory of electrolyte dissociation and its limitations, weak and strong electrolytes, Ostwald's dilution law, its uses and limitations. Problems. Debye-Huckel-Onsager's equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only). Transport number, definition and determination by Hittorf and moving boundary methods. Applications of conductivity measurements: determination of degree of dissociation, determination of Ka of acids, determination of solubility product of a sparigly soluble salt, conductometric titrations.


    Thermodynamics-I: Definition of thermodynamic terms: system, surroundings etc. Types of systems, intensive and extensiveproperties. State and path functions and their differentials, Thermodynamic process. Concept of heat and work.

    First law of thermodynamics: statement, definition of internal energy and enthalphy, Heat capacity. Heat capacities at constant volume and pressure and their relationship. Joule's law-Joule-Thomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Calculation of w,q, dU & dH for the expansion of ideal gases under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process. Problems

    Thermochemistry: Standard state, standard enthalpy of formation - Hess's law of heat summation and its applications. Heat of reaction at constant pressure and at constant volume. Enthalpy of neutralization. Bond dissociation energy and its calculation from thermo-chemical data, temperature dependence of enthalphy. Kirchhoff's equation.


    Thermodynamics-II: Second law of thermodynamics: need for the law, different statements of the law. Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Carnot theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature.

    Concept of Entropy: entropy as a state function, entropy as a function of V & T, entropy as a function of P & T, entropy change in physical change, Clausius inequality, entropy as a criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Entropy change in ideal gases and mixing of gases.

    Third law of Thermodynamics: Nernst heat theorem, statement and concept of residual entropy, evaluation of absolute entropy from heat capacity data. Gibbs and Helmholtz functions: Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamic quantities, A & G as criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their advatage over entropy change, Variation of G and A with P, V and T. Definition of pH and pKa, determination of pH using hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrode by potentiometric method. Buffers - mechanism of buffer action, Henderson-Hazel equation. Hydrolysis of salts.


    (A) Chemical Equilibrium: Equilibrium constant and free energy. Thermodynamic derivation of law of mass action. Le Chatelier principle. Reaction isotherm and reaction isochore-Clapeyron equation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation, applications.

    (B) Solutions and Colligative Properties: Dilute solutions; lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's and Henry's Laws and their applications. Excess thermodynamic functions. Thermodynamic derivation using chemical potential to derive relations between the four colligative properties [(i) relative lowering of vapour pressure, (ii) elevation of boiling point, (iii) Depression of freezing point, (iv) osmotic pressure] and amount of solute. Applications in calculating molar masses of normal, dissociated and associated solutes in solution.


    Spectroscopy: Introduction: electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different spectrometers, statement of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, degrees of freedom.

    Rotational Spectrum: Diatomic molecules, Energy of a rigid rotor (semi-classical principles), selection rules, spectral intesity, distribution using population distribution (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution), determination of bond length, qualitative description of non-rigid rotor, isotope effect. Vibrational Spectrum: Infrared spectrum: Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, selection rules, pure vibrational spectrum, intensity, determination of force constant and qualitative relation of force constant and bond energies, effect of anharmonic motion and isotope on the spectrum, idea of vibrational frequencies of different funcitonal groups.

    Raman Spectrum: Concept of polarizability, pure rotational and pure vibrational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules.

    Electronic Spectrum: Concept of potential energy curves for bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, qualitative description of selection rules and Franck-Condon principle. Qualitative description of σ, π- and n M.O., their energy levels and the respective transitions


    • 1. Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin's Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford University Press
  • JBCH-551

    Inorganic Chemistry-II Lab:

    • 1. Estimation of Cu (II) and K2Cr2O7 using sodium thiosulphate solution (iodimetrically).
    • 2. Estimation of available chlorine in bleaching powder iodimetrically.
    • 3. Estimation of (i) arsenite and (ii) antimony in tartar-emeticiodimetrically.
    • 4. Preparation of Aluminium potassium sulphate KAl(SO4)2.12H2O (potash alum).
    • 5. Preparation of cuprous chloride Cu2Cl2.
  • JBCH-552

    Organic Chemistry-II Lab:

    • 1. Acetylation of one of the following compounds (aniline, o, m and p- toluidine ) and phenols.
    • 2. Benzoylation of one of the following compounds amines (aniline, o , m p- toluidines and o , m, p- anisidine) and phenols(naphthol, resorcinol, p-cresol) by Schotten Baumann reaction.
    • 3. Hydrolysis of amides and esters to obtain benzoic acid.
    • 4. Derivatives of the carbonyl compounds
      • a. 2, 4 DNP of one of the following compounds-ethyl methyl ketone, di ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone
    • 5. Qualitative analysis of the following unknown organic compounds
      • Carboxylic acid
      • Phenol
      • Alcohol
      • Aldehydes
      • Ketones
      • Esters
  • JBCH-553

    Physical Chemistry-II Lab:

    • 1. Thermochemistry:
      • a. Determination of heat capacity of a calorimeter for different volumes using change of enthalpy data of a known system
      • b. Determination of heat capacity of the calorimeter and enthalpy of neutralization of compounds.
    • 2. Potentiometric Titration:
      • a. Strong acid with strong base
      • b. Weak acid with strong base
    • 3. Potentiometric titration of Mohr's salt with potassium dichromate.
    • 4. Determination of critical solution temperature and composition of the phenol-water system and to study the effect of impurities on it.
    • 5. Phase equilibria: Construction of the phase diagram of simple eutectic and congruent melting systems, using cooling curves and ignition tube methods.
  • Total Credits