B.Sc. (Hons) Zoology Syllabus

Semester III

  • JBZH-301

    Comparative anatomy of Vertebrate:


    Respiratory system: Skin, Gills, Lungs, Air sacs and voice apparatus, Air bladder and accessory breathing organs in fishes. Mechanism of breathing.


    Circulatory System: Evolution of heart and aortic arches, venous system and lymphatic system.


    Skeleton System: Axial and appendicular skeleton, Jaw suspensorium and Visceral arches.


    Nervous System: Central & Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial nerves.


    Sense Organs: Classification of receptors, structure and working of Mammalian eye and ear.


    Urinogenital System Succession of kidney, Evolution of urinogenital ducts


    • 1. Kingsley, J. S. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, P. Blakiston's son and co., Philadelphia.
    • 2. Sedgwick, A. A Student's textbook of Z|oology, S. Sonnenchein and co., London.
    • 3. Jordan, E. L. and Verma, P. S. Chordate Zoology, S. Chand and Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
    • 4. Kotpal R.L. Vertebrata, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
  • JBBH-301

    Development of Plant & Their Utilization:


    Organization of Higher plant body: Organization of shoot and root systems in f lowering plants, variation in habit and longevity (Annual-Maize as monocot, mustard as dicot , Hydrilla as aquatic, Cucurbita as mesophyte, Nerium as xerophyte, Cuscuta as parasite), Environmental influence (xero-meso-, hydro- & halophytes).


    Meristems and Development:

    a) Shoot apical meristems, root apical meristems (theories, structure and functions), origin of lateral meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium).

    b) Secondary body of the plants: Vascular cambium (structure, function and periodicity), structure and functions of periderm.


    Economic Importance of Cereals, Pulses and Oils: (a) A general account of distribution, botany, cultivation and uses of wheat, rice, maize & potato:

    a) A general account of distribution, botany, cultivation and uses of Legumes: Chickpea (Bengel gram), and Red gram (Arhar).

    b) A brief account of botany and uses of Vegetable oil sources: Mustard, Groundnut and soyabean.


    Economic Importance of Fibres, Woods and medicinal plants:

    a) A brief account of botany, extraction and uses of plant fibres: Cotton, Jute and Coir.

    b) Timber and firewood species: A general account of uses and properties of wood of Tectona, Dalbergia, Shorea, Chir,and Mangifera.

    c) A brief account of the important plant drugs and their chief constituents used in indigenous and allopathic systems of medicine- (Opium poppy, Rauvolfia, Catharanthus, Belladonna and Quinine.


    • 1. Singh, Pandey & Jain, Economic Botany, Rastogi publication.
    • 2. Pandey & Chadda, A Text book of Botany, Vikas Publishing house.
    • 3. Tayal, M.S., Plant Anatomy, Rastogi Publication.
  • JBCH-301

    Physical Chemistry-I:


    Ionic Equilibria: Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization, ionization constant and ionic product of water. Ionization of weak acids and bases, pH scale, common ion effect; dissociation constants of mono-, di- and tri- protic acids (exact treatment).Salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts. Buffer solutions; derivation of Henderson equation and its applications; buffer capacity, buffer range, buffer action and applications of buffers in analytical chemistry and biochemical processes in the human body. Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts – applications of solubility product principle. Qualitative treatment of acid – base titration curves (calculation of pH at various stages). Theory of acid – base indicators; selection of indicators and their limitations. Multistage equilibria in polyelectrolyte systems; hydrolysis and hydrolysis constants.


    A. Gaseous State: Postulates of kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior, van der Waals equation of state. Critical Phenomena: PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of states, the isotherms of van der Waals equation, relationship between critical constants and van der Waals constants, the law of corresponding states, reduced equation of state. Problems Molecular velocities: Root mean square, average and most probable velocities. Qualitative discussion of the Maxwell's distribution of molecular velocities, collision number, mean free path and collision diameter. Liquefaction of gases (based on Joule-Thomson effect). Problems

    B. Solid State: Definition of space lattice, unit cell. Laws of crystallography - (i) Law of constancy of interfacial angles (ii) Laws of rationality of indices (iii) Law of symmetry. Symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Derivation of Bragg equation. Determination of crystal structure of NaCl, KCl and CsCl (Laue's method and powder method).


    Phase Equilibrium: Statement and meaning of the terms - phase, component and degree of freedom, derivation of Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibria of one component system -water, CO2 and S systems. Phase equilibria of two component system -solid-liquid equilibria, simple eutectic -Bi-Cd, Pb-Ag systems, desilverisation of lead.


    Electrochemistry-I: Types of reversible electrodes-gas-metal ion, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt-anion and redox electrodes. Electrode reactions, Nernst equation, derivation of cell E.M.F. and single electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode-refence electrodes-standard electrode potential, sign conventions, electrochemcial series and its significance. Electrolytic and Galvanic cells - reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of electrochemical cells. EMF of a cell and its measurements. Computation of cell EMF. Calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (ΔG, ΔH and K), polarization, over potential and hydrogen overvoltage. Concentration cell with and without transport, liquid junction potential, application of concentration cells, valency of ions, solubility product and activity coefficient, potentiometric titrations.


    • 1. Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin's Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford University Press (2006).
    • 2. Castellan, G. W. Physical Chemistry 4th Ed. Narosa (2004).
    • 3. Engel, T. & Reid, P. Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics, & Kinetics Pearson Education, Inc: New Delhi (2007).
  • JBZH-351

    Comparative anatomy of Vertebrate Lab

    Based on theory paper of Comparative anatomy of Vertebrate

  • JBBH-351

    Development of Plant& Their Utilization Lab

    Based on theory paper of Development of Plant & Their Utilization

  • JBCH-351

    Physical Chemistry-I Lab:

    • I) Surface tension measurements
      • a) The relative surface tension of a liquid with respect to water at room temperature by stalagmometer.
      • b) The surface tension of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol at room temperature and also calculate the atomic parachors of carbon , hydrogen and oxygens.
    • II) Viscosity measurement ( using Ostwald's viscometer)
      • a) Study the effect of the addition of solutes such as (i) polymer (ii) ethanol (iii) sodium chloride on the viscosity of water at room temperature.
      • b) The relative viscosity of a liquid with respect to water at room temperature by using viscometer .
      • c) To determine the molecular weight of a polystyrene sample using viscometric method .
    • III) pH measurements
    • a) Measurement of pH of different solutions using pH-meter.
    • b) To determine the pH value of a given solution by indicator method(using buffer solutions of known pH).
    • c) pH metric titrations of
      • i. Strong acid and strong base
      • ii. Weak acid and strong base
  • Total Credits