B.Tech (Electronics & Communication) Syllabus
Semester VI

COURSE CODECOURSE NAMECREDITS

JEEC601
Digital Communication:
UNITI
Introduction: Historical perspective, block diagram of digital communication, channel type characteristics and modeling, comparison between analog and digital communication. Digital Baseband Signaling: Line codes for binary signals, matched filter, properties if matched filter, ISI and Nyquist criterion, Mary baseband signaling, the eye pattern.
UNITII
Signals Probability and random processes: Introduction, analogy between signals and vectors, Gram Schimdt Orthogonalization procedure, basics of probability, conditional probability, random variables, function of single random variable, mean variance and characteristics function, function of two random variables, jointly Gaussian random variables, central limit theorem, random processes, stationary auto correlation and power spectrum, LTI systems with random processes as inputs, representation of band limited and bandpass processes.
UNITIII
Bandpass Digital Signalling: Bandpass digital transmitter and receiver model, binary digital modulation schemes, generation and detection of binary ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK, QPSK, & MSK signals, Mary bandpass signalling, synchronization.
UNITIV
Spread Spectrum Systems: Historical background, pn sequence, basics of DSSS, BPSKDS spread spectrum system and probability of error, resistance to jamming, FHSS, Gold codes.
UNITV
Information Theory and Coding: Introduction, Information measure and entropy, joint and conditional entropies, source coding and Shannon's theorem, source coding for discrete memoryless sources, discrete memoryless channels, mutual information and channel capacity, channel coding theorem, continuous sources and differential entropy. Error Control Coding: Introduction, error control strategies, modulo2 arithmetic, error correcting codes, block codes, convolution codes, graphical representation of convolution codes.
Books:
 1. Digital Communication, P. Ramakrishna Rao, TMH
 2. John G. Proakis, "Digital Communications", McGrawHill International.
 3. Digital Communication, Simon Haykin, Wiley India
 4. B.P. Lathi, "Modern Digital and Analog communication Systems", 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, 2010.
04 
JEEC602
Digital Signal Processing:
UNITI
DiscreteTime Signals And Systems: Sequences, Discrete Time Systems, LTI Systems, Frequency Domain Representation of Discrete Time Signals and Systems, Discrete Time Signals and Frequency Domain Representation, Fourier Transform. Discrete Fourier Transform: Discrete Fourier Transforms, Properties, Linear Convolution using DFT, DCT
UNITII
Sampling of Continuous Time Signals: Sampling and reconstruction of signals, frequency domain representation of sampling, discrete time processing of continuous time signals, continuous time processing of discrete time signals, changing the sampling rate using discrete time processing, multi rate signal processing, digital processing of analog signals, over sampling and noise shaping in A/D and D/A conversion
UNITIII
Transform Analysis of LTI Systems: Frequency response of LTI systems, system functions, frequency response for rational system functions, magnitudephase relationship, all pass systems, minimum phase systems, and linear systems with generalized linear phase Overview of finite precision numerical effects, effects of coefficient quantization, Effects of roundoff noise in digital filters, zeroinput limit cycles in fixed point realizations of IIR digital filters.
UNITIV
Filter Design Techniques: Design of DT IIR filters from continuous – time filters, design of FIR filters by windowing, Kaiser Window method, optimum approximations of FIR filters, FIR equiripple approximation.
UNITV
Efficient computation of the DFT: Goertzel algorithm, decimation in time and decimation in frequency, FFT algorithm, practical considerations, implementation of the DFT using convolution, effects of finite register length. Fourier Analysis of Signals Using DFT: DFT analysis of sinusoidal signals, timedependent Fourier transforms: Block convolution, Fourier analysis of non – stationary and stationary random signals, spectrum analysis of random signals using estimates of the autocorrelation sequence
Books:
 1. Oppenheim A.V., Schafer, Ronald W. & Buck, John R.," Discrete Time Signal processing", Pearson Education.
 2. Proakis, J.G. & Manolakis, D.G.," Digital Signal Processing: Principles Algorithms and Applications", Prentice Hall of India.
 3. Rabiner, L.R. and Gold B., "Theory and applications of DSP", PHI.
 4. Oppenheim, Alan V. & Willsky, Alan S., "Signals and Systems", PHI
 5. Johnson, J. R., "Introduction to Digital Signal Processing", PHI.
 6. De Fatta, D.J.Lucas, J.G. & Hodgkiss, W. S.," Digital Signal Processing", John Wiley & Sons
04 
JEEC603
Microwave Engineering:
UNITI
Introduction: microwaves, IEEE Microwave band, Rectangular Wave Guide: Field Components, TE, TM Modes, Dominant TE10 mode, Field Distribution, Power, Attenuation. Circular Waveguides: TE, TM modes. Wave Velocities, Micro strip Transmission line (TL), Coupled TL, Strip TL, Coupled Strip Line, Coplanar TL, Microwave Cavities
UNITII
Introduction: microwaves, IEEE Microwave band, Rectangular Wave Guide: Field Components, TE, TM Modes, Dominant TE10 mode, Field Distribution, Power, Attenuation. Circular Waveguides: TE, TM modes. Wave Velocities, Micro strip Transmission line (TL), Coupled TL, Strip TL, Coupled Strip Line, Coplanar TL, Microwave Cavities
UNITIII
Microwave Tubes: Limitation of Conventional Active Devices at Microwave frequency, Two Cavity Klystron, Reflex Klystron, Magnetron, Traveling Wave Tube, Backward Wave Oscillators: Their Schematic, Principle of Operation, Performance Characteristic and their applications.
UNITIV
Solid state amplifiers and oscillators: Microwave Bipolar Transistor, Microwave tunnel diode, Microwave Fieldeffect Transistor, Transferred electron devices, Avalanche Transit –time devices: IMPATT Diode, TRAPPAT Diode.
UNITV
Microwave Measurements: General set up of a microwave test bench, Slotted line, tunable detector, VSWR Meter, microwave power measurements techniques, frequency measurement, attenuation measur ements, phase shift measurement, measurement of VSWR, measurement of impedance, measurement of antenna characteristics, microwave link design.
Books:
 1. Samuel Y. Liao, "Microwave Devices and Circuits", Pearson Education.
 2. "Microwave and Radar Engineering" by M Kulkarni.
 3. R.E Collin, "Foundation for Microwave Engineering", John Wiley India
 4. A. Das and S. K. Das, "Microwave Engineering", TMH.
04 
JEEC604
Data Structure using C:
UNITI
Introduction: Basic Terminology, Elementary Data Organization, Structure operations, Algorithm Complexity and TimeSpace tradeoff
Arrays: Array Definition, Representation and Analysis, Single and Multidimensional Arrays, address calculation, application of arrays, Character String in C, Character string operation, Array as Parameters, Ordered List, Sparse Matrices and Vectors.
Stacks: Array Representation and Implementation of stack, Operations on Stacks: Push & Pop, Array Representation of Stack, Linked Representation of Stack, Operations Associated with Stacks, Application of stack: Conversion of Infix to Prefix and Postfix Expressions, Evaluation of postfix expression using stack.
Recursion: Recursive definition and processes, recursion in C, example of recursion, Tower of Hanoi Problem, simulating recursion, Backtracking, recursive algorithms, principles of recursion, tail recursion, removal of recursion.UNITII
Trees: Basic terminology, Binary Trees, Binary tree representation, algebraic Expressions, Complete Binary Tree, Extended Binary Trees, Array and Linked Representation of Binary trees, Traversing Binary trees, Threaded Binary trees, Traversing Threaded Binary trees, Huffman algorithm.
Searching and Hashing: Sequential search, binary search, comparison and analysis, Hash Table, Hash Functions, Collision Resolution Strategies, Hash Table Implementation.UNITIII
Sorting: Insertion Sort, Bubble Sorting, Quick Sort, Two Way Merge Sort, Heap Sort, Sorting on Different Keys, Practical consideration for Internal Sorting. Binary Search Trees: Binary Search Tree (BST), Insertion and Deletion in BST, Complexity of Search Algorithm, Path Length, AVL Trees, Btrees.
UNITIV
Frequency Response Analysis: Frequency Response, Correlation between Time and Frequency Responses, Polar and Inverse Polar Plots, Bode Plots Stability in Frequency Domain: Nyquist Stability Criterion, Assessment of Relative Stability: Gain Margin and Phase Margin, Constant M & N Circles.
UNITV
Graphs: Terminology & Representations, Graphs & Multigraphs, Directed Graphs, Sequential Representations of Graphs, Adjacency Matrices, Traversal, Connected Component and Spanning Trees, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees. File Structures: Physical Storage Media File Organization, Organization of records into Blocks, Sequential Files, Indexing and Hashing, Primary indices, Secondary indices, B+ Tree index Files, B Tree index Files, Indexing and Hashing Comparisons.
Books:
 1. Horowitz and Sahani, "Fundamentals of data Structures", Galgotia Publication Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 2. R. Kruse etal, "Data Structures and Program Design in C", Pearson Education Asia, Delhi2002
 3. M. Tenenbaum, "Data Structures using C & C++", PrenticeHall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 4. K Loudon, "Mastering Algorithms with C", Shroff Publisher & Distributors Pvt. Ltd.
 5. Bruno R Preiss, "Data Structures and Algorithms with Object Oriented Design Pattern in C++", Jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 6. Adam Drozdek, "Data Structures and Algorithms in C++", Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd. (Singapore)
04 
JEEC061064
Departmental Elective II (Electronic Switching/Artificial Neural Network/ Advance Semiconductor Devices/Television and Video Engineering)
Electronic Switching:
UNITI
Evolution of Switching systems: Introduction: Message switching, circuits switching, functions of a switching system, registertranslatorsenders, distribution frames, crossbar switch, a general trunking, electronic switching, Reed electronic system, digital switching systems.
UNITII
Digital switching: Switching functions, space division switching, Time division switching, two dimensional switching, Digital cross connect systems, digital switching in analog environment.
UNITIII
Telecom Traffic Engineering: Network traffic load and parameters, grade of service and blocking probability, modeling switching systems, incoming traffic and service time characterization, blocking models and loss estimates, Delay systems.
UNITIV
Control of Switching Systems: Introduction, Call processing functions; common control, Reliability availability and security; Stored program control. Signaling: Introduction, Customer line signaling, AF junctions and trunk circuits, FDM carrier systems, PCM and inter register signaling, Common channel signaling principles, CCITT signaling system No. 6 and 7, Digital customer line signaling.
UNITV
Packet Switching: Packets formats, statistical multiplexing, routing control, dynamic, virtual path circuit and fixed path routing, flow control, X.25 protocol, frame relay, TCP/IP, ATM cell, ATM service categories, ATM switching, ATM memory switch, space memory switch, memoryspace, memoryspacememory switch, Banyan network switch.
Books:
 1. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, "Telecommunication Switching System and Networks", PHI.
 2. J.E. Flood, "Telecommunication switching, Traffic and Networks", Pearson Education.
 3. J.C. Bellamy, "Digital Telephony", John Wiley, 3rd Ed.
Artificial Neural Network:
UNITI
Introduction: Introduction and history, human brain, biological neuron, models of neuron, signal flow graph of neuron, feedback, network architecture, knowledge representation, Artificial intelligence and neural networks. Learning Process: Error correction learning, memory based learning, Hebbian learning, competitive learning, Boltzmann learning, learning with and without teacher, learning tasks, memory and adaptation.
UNITII
Artificial neurons, Neural networks and architectures Introduction, neuron signal function, mathematical preliminaries, Feed forward & feedback architecture. Geometry of Binary threshold neurons and their networks Pattern recognition, convex sets and convex hulls, space of Boolean functions, binary neurons for pattern classification, non linear separable problems, capacity of TLN, XOR solution.
UNITIII
Perceptrons and LMS Learning objective of TLN, pattern space & weight space, perceptron learning algorithm, perceptron convergence theorem, pocket algorithm, LMS learning, MSE error surface, steepest descent search, LMS and application. Back propagation and other learning algorithms Multilayered architecture, back propagation learning algorithm, practical considerations, structure growing algorithms, applications of feed forward neural networks, reinforcement learning\
UNITIV
Statistical Pattern Recognition Bayes' theorem, classical decisions with Bayes' theorem, probabilistic interpretation of neuron function, interpreting neuron signals as probabilities, multilayered networks & posterior probabilities, error functions for classification problems. RBF Networks Regularization networks, generalized RBF networks, RBF network for solving XOR problem, comparison of RBF networks & multilayer perceptrons. Stochastic Machines, Statistical Mechanics, Simulated Annealing, Boltzmann Machine.
UNITV
Adaptive Resonance Theory Building blocks of adaptive resonance, Adaptive Resonance Theory Self Organizing Feature MAP Introduction, Maximal eigenvector filtering, principal component analysis, generalized learning laws, competitive learning, vector quantization, Mexican hat networks.
Books:
 1. Kumar Satish, "Neural Networks", TMH
 2. Simon Haykin, "Neural Networks", PHI
 3. J. M. Zurada, "Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems", Jaico Publishers.
Advance Semiconductor Devices:
UNITI
Review of Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Semiconductor Materials and their properties, Carrier Transport in Semiconductors, Excess Carriers in Semiconductor
UNITII
Junctions and Interfaces: Description of pn junction, Action, The Abrupt Junction, Example of an Abrupt Junction, The linearly graded Junction. The Ideal Diode Model, Real Diodes, Temperature Dependence of IV Characteristics, High Level Injection Effects, Example of Diodes. Description of Breakdown Mechanism, Zener and Avalanche Breakdown in pn Junction
UNITIII
Majority Carrier Diodes: The Tunnel Diode, The Backward Diode, The Schottkey Barrier Diode, Ohmic Contacts Heterojunctions.
UNITIV
Microwave Diodes: The Varactor Diode, The pin Diode, The IMPATT Diode, TRAPATT Diode, The BARITT Diode, Transferred Electron Devices Optoelectronic Devices: The Solar Cell, Photo detectors, Light Emitting Diodes, Semiconductor Lasers.
UNITV
Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors: Basic Types of MESFETs, Models for IV Characteristics of ShortChannel MESFETs, High Frequency Performance, MESFETs Structures. MOS Transistors and Charge Coupled Devices: Basic Structures and the Operating Principle, IV Characteristics, ShortChannel Effects, MOSFET Structures, Charge Coupled Devices.
Books:
 1. M.S. Tyagi, "Introduction To Semiconductor Materials And Devices", John WillyIndia Pvt. Ltd.
 2. S. M. Sze, "Physics of Semiconductor Devices", John WillyIndia Pvt. Ltd.
 3. B. G. Streetman and S. Banerjee, "Solid state electronics devices", PHI.
Television and Video Engineering:
UNITI
Fundamentals of Television: Aspect ratio, image continuity, number of scanning lines, interlaced scanning, picture resolution, camera tubes, image orthicon, vidicon, plumbicon, silicon diode array vidicon, solid state image scanners, monochrome picture tubes, composite video signal, video signal dimension, horizontal sync composition, vertical sync composition, details function of vertical pulse train, scanning sequence details, picture signal transmission, positive and negative modulation VSB transmission, sound signal transmission, standard channel bandwidth.
UNITII
Monochrome Television Transmitter and Reciever: TV transmitter, TV signal propagation, , interference, TV transmission antennas, monochrome TV receiver, RF tuner, UHF, VHF tuner, digital tuning techniques, AFTIF subsystems, AGC noise cancellation, video and sound intercarrier detection, vision IF subsystems, dc reinsertion video amplifier circuits, sync operations, typical sync processing circuits, deflection current waveforms, deflection oscillators, frame deflection circuits, requirements of line deflection circuits, EHT generation, receiver antennas
UNITIII
Essential of Color Televisions: Compatibility, color perception, 3 color theory, luminance, hue and saturation, color television cameras, values of luminance and color difference signals, color television display tubes, delta gun precision in line and Trinitron color picture tube, purity and convergence, purity and static and dynamic convergence adjustments, pincushion correction techniques, automatic degaussing circuits, gray scale tracking, color signal transmission, bandwidth modulation of color difference signals, waiting factors, formation of chrominance signals.
UNITIV
Colour Television Systems: NTSC color tv systems, SECAM system, PAL color tv systems, cancellation of phase errors, PALD color system, PAL coder, PAL decoder receiver, chromo signal amplifier, separation of U and V signals, color burst separation, burst phase discriminator, ACC amplifier, reference oscillator, ident and color killer circuits, U and V demodulators, color signal matrixing, sound in tv.
UNITV
Advanced Television Systems: Satellite TV technology, geo stationary satellites, satellite electronics, domestic broadcast system, cable TV , signal sources, cable signal processing, distribution and scrambling, video recording, VCR electronics, video home formats, video disc recording and playback, DVD players, tele text signal coding and broadcast receiver, digital TV, transmission and reception, projection TV, flat panel display TV receivers, LCD and plasma screen receivers, 3DTV, EDTV
Books:
 1. RR Gulati, Monochrome Television practice, principles, technology and servicing, 3rd ed, 2006, New Age International.
 2. RR Gulati, Monochrome and colored Television, New Age India, 2003
 3. AM Dhake, Television and Video Engg, 2nd edition, TMH, 2003
 4. RP Bali, Color Television theory and practice, TMH, 1994
02 
JEEC651
Digital Communication Lab:
Objective: To design and implement the circuits to gain knowledge on performance of the circuit and its application. These circuits should also be simulated on Pspice.
 1. To construct a triangular wave with the help of Fundamental Frequency and its Harmonic component.
 2. To construct a Square wave with the help of Fundamental Frequency and its Harmonic component.
 3. Study of Pulse code modulation (PCM) and its demodulation using Bread Board.
 4. Study of delta modulation and demodulation and observe effect of slope overload.
 5. Study of pulse data coding techniques for NRZ formats.
 6. Study of Data decoding techniques for NRZ formats.
 7. Study of Manchester coding and Decoding.
 8. Study of Amplitude shift keying modulator and demodulator.
 9. Study of Frequency shift keying modulator and demodulator.
 10. Study of Phase shift keying modulator and demodulator
 11. Study of single bit error detection and correction using Hamming code.
 12. Measuring the input impedance and Attenuation of a given Transmission Line
02 
JEEC652
Digital Signal Processing Lab:
 1. With the help of Fourier series, make a square wave from sine wave and cosine waves. Find out coefficient values.
 2. Evaluate 4 point DFT of and IDFT of x(n) = 1, 0 << n << 3; 0 elsewhere.
 3. Implement the FIR Filters for 2 KHz cutoff frequency and 2 KHz bandwidth for band pass filter.
 4. Design FIR filter using Fourier series expansion method.
 5. Implement IIR low pass filter for a 4 KHz cutoff frequency and compare it the FIR filter with the same type use chirp as input signal.
 6. Verify Blackman and Hamming windowing techniques for square wave as an input which window will give good results.
 7. Implement the filter functions.
 8. Generate DTMF sequence 1234567890*# and observe its spectrogram.
 9. Generate an Amplitude Modulation having side low frequencies 1200 Hz and 800 Hz. Observe and verify the theoretical FFT characteristics with the observed ones.
 10. Generate Frequency Modulation having carrier frequencies 1 KHz and modulating frequency 200 Hz with the modulation index of 0.7. Observe and verify the theoretical FFT characteristics with the observed ones.
 11. Generate an FSK wave form for transmitting the digital data of the given bit sequence. Predict and verify the FFT for the same one.
 12. To study the circular convolution.
02 
JEEC653
Seminar:
At least two presentation based on latest technology
02 
JGP601
General Proficiency
02 
Total Credits60