B.Sc. (Hons) Botany

Semester I

  • JBBH-101

    Plant Diversity I:


    Algae: Introduction-General characteristics; Ecology and distribution; range of thallus organization; Cell structure and components; cell wall, pigment system, reserve food, flagella; and methods of reproduction, classification; criteria, system of Fritsch, Economic Importance of Algae.
    Life History of Algae: Life histories of algae belonging to various classes:

    • • Chlorophyceae-Chlamydomonas & Volvox
    • • Cyanophyceae-Nostoc
    • • Xanthophyceae-Vaucheria
    • • Charophyceae-Chara
    • • Rhodophyceae-Polysiphonia
    • • Phaeophyceae-Ectocarpus


    Fungi: General characters, classification (Alexopolus & Mims 1979); important features (in brief) and life history of Mast igomycot in a (Phytophthora), Zygomycot in a (Rhizopus), Ascomycotina (Saccharomyces), Basidiomycotina (Puccinia), Deuteromycotina (Alternaria).


    Bryophytes: Outline classification, comparative study of morphology, anatomy, reproduction, broad interrelationships of Hepaticopsida (Riccia, Marchantia), Anthocerotopsida (Anthoceros), Bryopsida (Funaria); Evolution of Sporophyte in bryophyte and economic importance of bryophytes.


    • 1. Sethi & Walia, Text book of Fungi & their allies, Macmillan.
    • 2. Singh, Pande & Jain, A text book of botany, Rastogi Publication IVthEd.
    • 3. Lee, R. E., Phycology, Cambridge University press.
  • JBZH-101

    Animal Diversity I


    Protozoa, Porifera and Cnidaria:

    • a) Protozoa: Salient features and classification upto classes. Locomotory organelles and locomotion.Nutrition. Reproduction and life cycle and diseases caused by Plasmoodium.
    • b) Porifera: Salient feature and classification upto classes. The canal system in Porifera. Types of spicules, Reproduction.
    • c) Cnidaria: Salient features and classification upto classes. Polyp and medusoid forms, Tissue organization. Polymorphosim and the various types of zooids. Reproduction and metagenesis.


    Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Annelida:

    • a) Platyhelminthes: Salient features and classification upto classes. General organization of Trematoda and Cestoda: Body wall, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. Life Cycle patterns (Fasciola).
    • b) Nematoda: Salient features and classification upto classes. Body wall, pseudocoelom, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems.
    • c) Annelida: Salient features and classification upto classes. Digesiive, circulatory, excretory and reproductives system in Oligochaetes.


    Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata:

    • a) Arthropoda: Salient features and classification upto classes. Body wall, digestive, respiratory and excretory systems. Circulation and reproduction in lnsecta. Metamorphosis in insects. Crustacean larva (Nauplius, cypris, protozoea, Zoea, mysis and megalopa) and Parasitic Crustanean (Sacculina)
    • b) Mollusca: Salient features and classification upto classes. The mantle cavity and the foot. Structure and modification of shell. Respiratory organs and respiration. Circulation: Torsion in gastropods.
    • c) Echinodermata: Salient feature and classification upto classes. The water vascular system, digestive system and respiration organs. Echinoderm larvae.


    • 1. Ekambaranatha A.M. and T.N. Anantha krishnan. Manual of Zoology [Invertebrate], parts I and II.S. Viswanathan (Printers and Publishers) Pvt. Ltd; Madras.
    • 2. Jordan, E.L. and P.S. Verma. Invertebrate Zoology. S. Chand and Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
    • 3. Kotpal, R.L. Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Helminthes, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
  • JBCH-101

    Foundation Chemistry:


    Atomic structure: Idea of de Broglie matter waves, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, atomic orbitals, Schrodinger wave equation, significance of Ψ and Ψ2, quantum numbers, radial and angular wave functions and probability distribution curves, shapes of s, p, d orbitals. Aufbau and Pauli exclusion Principle, Hunds multiplicity rule, electronic configuration of elements.


    Periodicity of Elements: s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the following properties of the elements, with reference to s & p- block.

    • a) Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table.
    • b) Atomic radii (van der Waals)
    • c) Ionic and crystal radii.
    • d) Covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral )
    • e) Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization energy. Applications of ionization enthalpy.
    • f) Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy.
    • g) Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s/ Allred Rachow’s/ and Mulliken-Jaffe’s electronegativity scales. Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity. Sanderson’s electron density ratio.


    Mechanism of Organic reaction reactions: Curved arrow notation, drawing electron movements with arrow, half-headed and double-headed arrows, homolytic and heterolytic bond breaking. Types of reagents-electrophiles and nucleophiles, Types of organic reactions. Energy considerations. Reactive intermediates-carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, arynes and nitrenes (with examples). Assigning formal charges in intermediates and other ionic species. IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.


    Liquid State: Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (a qualitative description). Structural differences between solids, liquids and gases. Liquid crystals: Difference between liquid crystal, solid and liquid. Classification, structure of nematic and cholestric phases. Thermography and seven segment cell. Volumetric analysis and concept of normality, molarity, equivalent weight preparation of standard solution equivalence point and end point.


    • 1. New Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D. Lee, Compton Printing Ltd London.
    • 2. Principles of Inorganic Chemistry by HR Puri, R. Sharma & S.P. Jauhar, Vishal Publications Jalandhar.
    • 3. Basic Inorganic Chemistry F.A. Cotton and G. Willkinson III Edition
    • 4. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS, 1991.
  • JBBH-151

    Plant diversity I Lab:

    Based on theory paper of Plant diversity I

  • JBZH-151

    Animal diversity I Lab:

    Based on theory paper of Animal diversity I

  • JBCH-151

    Inorganic Chemistry-I Lab:

    • A. Titrimetric Analysis
      • i. Calibration and use of apparatus
      • ii. Preparation of solutions of different Molarity/Normality of titrants
    • B. Acid- Base Titrations
      • i. Estimation of carbonate and hydroxide present together in mixture.
      • ii. Estimation of carbonate and bicarbonate present together in a mixture.
      • iii. Estimation of percentage of ammonia in an ammonium salt
    • C. Oxidation- Reduction Titrimetry
      • i. Estimation of Fe (II) (Mohr salt) using standardized KMnO4 solution.
      • ii. Estimation of Fe (II) with K2Cr2O7 using internal (diphenylamine, anthranilic acid) indicator.
    • D. Complexometric Titrations
      • i. To determine the total, permanent and temporary hardness of water by complexometric method using EDTA.
  • Total Credits