B.Sc. (Hons) Botany

Semester II

  • JBBH-201

    Plant Diversity II:


    Pteridophytes: Salient features of primary vascular plants; outline classification. A general study of morphology, anatomy, and reproductive structures of Psilopsida (Psilotum), Lycopsida (Lycopodium), Sphenopsida (Equisetum), Pteropsida (Pteridium); heterospory, seed habit and stellar evolution.



    • a) General characters, ovule and megasporogenesis, female gametophyte, pollination, formation of pollen tube and fertilization, embryology and maturation ofseed.
    • b) The living Cycads: Distribution, Morphology and anatomy, reproductive cycle, sporophytes and sporangia, gametophytes, fertilization, embryogeny and seed development with special reference to Cycas.
    • c) The Coniferales: Morphology and anatomy, foliage leaves, strobili and sporangia, reproductive cycle–sporogenesis, gametophytes, fertilization, embryogeny and seed development with special reference to Pinus.
    • d) The Gnetales. Habit and distribution, morphology and anatomy; reproductive cycle-the strobili, sporogenesis, male and female gametophytes; pollination, fertilization and embryogeny with special reference to Ephedra.



    • a) Identification, nomenclature & classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and Prantl); International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
    • b) Diagnostic features of the following families with reference to local flora and economic importance: Ranunculaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae & Poaceae.


    • 1. Pandey, Mishra & Trivedi, A text book of Botany Vol II, Vikas Pub. House.
    • 2. Bhatnagar & Moitra, Gymnosperm, New age International Publisher.
    • 3. Verma, V. K., Taxonomy of Angiosperm, PHI learning pvt. Lmt.
  • JBZH-201

    Animal Diversity II:


    Chordates: Introduction and origin.


    Protochordate: General features of Hemichordates, Urochordates and Cephalochordates. Retrogressive metamorphosis.


    Pisces: Classification and general feature of Pisces. Osmoregulation, Migration and Parental care, Economic Importance of Pisces, Fin of fishes, Scale of Fishes, Air bladder and sound production in fishes.


    Amphibia: Classification and general feature. Parental care.


    Reptiles: Classification and general feature. Origin, Identification of poisonous and non- poisonous snakes in India, Biting mechanism in snakes, venom, effect of venom, poison apparatus, fungs, first aid.


    Aves: Classification and general feature. Origin, Flight adaptations, Migration, Economic Importance of Birds.


    Mammals: Classification and general feature. Dentition, dental formula, modification of teeth based on diet, placenta in mammals, characteristics of placenta, physiology and function of placenta and placental disease.


    • 1. Ekambarantha A, M and T.N Ananthakrishnan., A manual of Zoology [Chordata]. S. Viswanaathan (Printers and Publishers] Pvt. Ltd., Madras.
    • 2. Jordan E.L. and P.S. Verma. Chordata Zoology and elements of Animal Physiology. S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.
    • 3. Kotpal R.L., Vertebrata, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
    • 4. Nigam H. C., Zoology of chordates, Vishal publications, Jalandhar.
  • JBCH-201

    Organic Chemistry:


    Alkanes, Alkenes, Dienes and Alkynes, cycloalkanes:

    • a. Alkanes: Methods of formation (with special reference to Wurtz reaction, Kolbe reaction, Corey-House reaction and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids), chemical reactions (nitration and halogenation. Mechanism of free radical halogenation of alkanes- orientation, reactivity and
    • b. Alkyenes: Structure and bonding in alkynes. Mehtods of formation, chemical reactions, and acidity of alkynes. Mechanism of electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reaction, hydroboration oxidation, selectivity.
    • c. Alkenes: Methods of formation, mechanisms of dehydration of alcohols and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides, regioselectivity in alcohol dehydration. The Saytzeff rule, Hofmann elimination, physical properties and relative stabilities of alkenes. Chemical reactions-mechanisms involved in hydrogenation, electrophilic and free radical additions, Markownikoff’s rule. Hydroboration-oxidation, oxymercuration-demercuration, epoxidation, ozonolysis, hydration, hydroxylation and oxidation with KmnO4. Polymerization of alkenes.
    • d. Dienes: Nomenclature and classification- isolated, conjugated and cumulated dienes. Structure of allenes and butadiene, method of formation. 2- and 1, 4-additions, Diels-Alder reaction.
    • e. Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical reactions, Baeyer’s strain theory and its limitations. Stran in small rings (cyclopropane and cyclobutane), theory of strainless ring. The case of cyclopropane ring: banana bonds.


    Alchols, Ethers and epoxide:

    • a. Alcohols: preparation, properties and relative reactivity of 10, 20, 30 alcohols, Bouvaelt-Blanc Reduction; Preparation and properties of glycols: Oxidation by periodic acid and leadtetraacetate, Pinacol- Pinacolone rearrangement; Phenols: Preparation and properties; Acidity and factors effecting it, Ring substitution reactions, Reimer – Tiemann and Kolbe’s – Schmidt Reactions,
    • b. Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation and reactions with acids. Reactions of epoxides with alcohols, ammonia derivatives and LiAlH4.


    Carbonyl Compounds:

    Structure, reactivity and preparation; Nucleophilic additions, Nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions with ammonia derivatives with mechanism; Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, Claisan-Schmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction, Beckmann and Benzil-Benzilic acid rearrangements, haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, α-substitution reactions, oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAlH4, NaBH4, MPV, PDC and PGC); Addition reactions of unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Michael addition. Active methylene compounds: Keto-enol tautomerism. Preparation and synthetic applications of diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate:


    Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives:

    Preparation, physical properties and reactions of monocarboxylic acids: Typical reactions of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy acids and unsaturated acids: succinic/phthalic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, maleic and fumaric acids; Preparation and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides; Comparative study of nucleophilic sustitution at acyl group - Mechanism of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of esters, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann and Reformatsky reactions, Hofmann-bromamide degradation and Curtius rearrangement.


    • 1. Organic Chemistry by Morrison & Boyd, Printice-Hall.
    • 2. Organic Chemistry by L.G. Wade Jr. Prentice-Hall.
    • 3. Organic Chemistry by Fessenden & Fessenden, Brooks/Cole Pub. Company.
    • 4. Organic Reaction Mechanism by V.K. Ahluwalia and R.K. Parashar, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
  • JBBH-251

    Plant diversity II Lab:

    Based on theory paper of Plant diversity II

  • JBZH-251

    Animal diversity II Lab:

    Based on theory paper of Animal diversity II

  • JBCH-251

    Organic Chemistry-I Lab:

    • 1. Checking the calibration of the thermometer.
    • 2. Purification of organic compounds by recrystallisation using the following solvents
      • a) Water
      • b) Alcohol
      • c) Alcohol-water
    • 3. Determination of the melting point of unknown organic compounds.
    • 4. Effect of impurities on the melting point - mixed melting point of two unknown organic compounds.
    • 5. Determination of boiling point of liquid compounds.
    • 6. Crystallization of the given organic sample.
  • Total Credits